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Thursday, 19 April 2012


Research facilities
Solar planetary physics, infrared astronomy, geo-cosmo physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, archaeology, and hydrology are some of the branches of study at this institute.[38] An observatory at Udaipur also falls under the control of this institution.[38]
Research & Development in the field of semiconductor technology, micro-electromechanical systems and process technologies relating to semiconductor processing.
The NARL carries out fundamental and applied research in Atmospheric and Space Sciences.
RRI carries out research in selected areas of physics, such as astrophysics and astronomy.
The SAC deals with the various aspects of practical use of space technology.[38] Among the fields of research at the SAC are geodesy, satellite based telecommunications, surveying, remote sensing, meteorology, environment monitoring etc.[38] The SEC additionally operates the Delhi Earth Station.[39]
North Eastern-Space Applications Center
Providing developmental support to North East by undertaking specific application projects using remote sensing, GIS, satellite communication and conducting space science research.
 Test facilities
Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, and Nagercoil
The LPSC handles testing and implementation of liquid propulsion control packages and helps develop engines for launch vehicles and satellites.[38] The testing is largely conducted at Mahendragiri.[38] The LPSC also constructs precision transducers.[40]
 Construction and launch facilities
The venue of eight successful spacecraft projects is also one of the main satellite technology bases of ISRO. The facility serves as a venue for implementing indigenous spacecraft in India.[38] The satellites Ayrabhata, Bhaskara, APPLE, and IRS-1A were constructed at this site, and the IRS and INSAT satellite series are presently under development here.[40]
With multiple sub-sites the Sriharikota island facility acts as a launching site for India's satellites.[38] The Sriharikota facility is also the main launch base for India's sounding rockets.[40] The centre is also home to India's largest Solid Propellant Space Booster Plant (SPROB) and houses the Static Test and Evaluation Complex (STEX).[40]
The largest ISRO base is also the main technical centre and the venue of development of the SLV-3, ASLV, and PSLV series.[38] The base supports India's Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station and the Rohini Sounding Rocket program.[38] This facility is also developing the GSLV series.[38]
TERLS is used to launch sounding rockets.
 Tracking and control facilities
This network receives, processes, archives and distributes the spacecraft health data and payload data in real time. It can track and monitor satellites up to very large distances, even beyond the Moon.
The NRSC applies remote sensing to manage natural resources and study aerial surveying.[38] With centres at Balanagar and Shadnagar it also has training facilities at Dehradun in form of the Indian Institute of Remote Sensing.[38]
Bangalore (headquarters) and a number of ground stations throughout India and World.[39]
Software development, ground operations, Tracking Telemetry and Command (TTC), and support is provided by this institution.[38] ISTRAC has Tracking stations throughout the country and all over the world in Port Louis (Mauritius), Bearslake (Russia), Biak (Indonesia) and Brunei.
Geostationary satellite orbit raising, payload testing, and in-orbit operations are performed at this facility.[41] The MCF has earth stations and Satellite Control Centre (SCC) for controlling satellites.[41] A second MCF-like facility named 'MCF-B' is being constructed at Bhopal.[41]
[edit] Human resource development
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) under National Remote Sensing Centre, Department of Space, Govt. of India is a premier training and educational institute set up for developing trained professional in the field of Remote Sensing, Geoinformatics and GPS Technology for Natural Resources, Environmental and Disaster Management.
The institute offers undergraduate and graduate courses in Aerospace engineering, Avionics and Physical Sciences.
IIA is a premier institute devoted to research in astronomy, astrophysics and related physics.
Development and Educational Communication Unit
The centre works for education, research, and training, mainly in conjunction with the INSAT program.[38] The main activities carried out at DECU include GRAMSAT and EDUSAT projects.[40] The Training and Development Communication Channel (TDCC) also falls under the operational control of the DECU.[39]
 Commercial wing
The marketing agency under government control markets ISRO's hardware, manpower, and software.[41]
Other facilities include:
 Vision for the future
ISRO plans to launch a number of new-generation Earth Observation Satellites in the near future. It will also undertake the development of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. ISRO has stated that it will send unmanned missions to Mars and Near-Earth Objects.
Forthcoming Satellites
Satellite Name
Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) is a microwave remote sensing satellite carrying a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
The satellite weighing around 1850 kg is in the final stages of development for a launch in 2011 into a 536 km orbit with 25 days repetitivity with an added advantage of 12 days inner cycle for Coarse Resolution ScanSAR mode.
ISRO and French National Space Centre (CNES) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in 2004-05 for the development and implementation of Megha-Tropiques (Megha meaning cloud in Sanskrit and Tropiques meaning tropics in French). The launch of Megha-Tropiques is planned during mid 2011.Megha-Tropiques is aimed at understanding the life cycle of convective systems and to their role in the associated energy and moisture budget of the atmosphere in the tropical regions. The satellite will carry an Imaging Radiometer Microwave Analysis and Detection of Rain and Atmospheric Structures (MADRAS), a six channel Humidity Sounder (SAPHIR), a four channel Scanner for Radiation Budget Measurement (SCARAB) and GPS Radio Occultation System (GPS-ROS).
INSAT-3D is a meteorological satellite, planned to be launched on-board GSLV in 2011. The satellite has many new technology elements like star sensor, micro stepping Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) to reduce the spacecraft disturbances and Bus Management Unit (BMU) for control and telecomm and/telemetry function. It also incorporates new features of bi-annual rotation and Image and Mirror motion compensations for improved performance of the meteorological payloads.
The Satellite for ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL) is a joint ISRO-CNES mission and planned to be launched during 2011. The Ka band altimeter, ALTIKA, provided by CNES payload consists of a Ka-band radar altimeter, operating at 35.75 GHz. A dual frequency total power type microwave radiometer (23.8 and 37 GHz) is embedded in the altimeter to correct tropospheric effects on the altimeter measurement. Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) on board enables precise determination of the orbit. A Laser Retroreflector Array (LRA) helps to calibrate the precise orbit determination system and the altimeter system several times throughout the mission.
ASTROSAT is a first dedicated Indian Astronomy satellite mission, which will enable multi-wavelength observations of the celestial bodies and cosmic sources in X-ray and UV spectral bands simultaneously. The scientific payloads cover the Visible (3500-6000 Ã…), UV (1300-3000 Ã…), soft and hard X-ray regimes (0.5-8 keV; 3-80 keV). The uniqueness of ASTROSAT lies in its wide spectral coverage extending over visible, UV, soft and hard X-ray regions.
The primary goal of GSAT-6/INSAT-4E, which is a Multimedia broadcast satellite, is to cater to the consumer requirements of providing entertainment and information services to vehicles through Digital Multimedia consoles and to the Multimedia mobile Phones. The satellite carries a 5 spot beam BSS and 5 spot beam MSS. It will be positioned at 83º East longitude with a mission life of 12 years. The launch is planned on-board GSLV during 2011.
GSAT-7/INSAT-4F is a multi-band satellite carrying payloads in UHF, S-band, C-band and Ku band. It is planned to be launched during 2011 on board GSLV and positioned at 74º East. The satellite weighs 2330 kg with a payload power of 2000W and mission life of 9 years.
GSAT-8/INSAT-4G is a Ku band satellite carrying 18 Ku band transponders. It will also carry a GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload and planned to be launched during 2011 with a mission life of 12 years and positioned at 55º E longitude. This I-3K satellite with a lift-off mass of 3150 kg and a payload power of 5300W will be launched on board ARIANE-5.
GSAT-12 is being realised as replacement INSAT-3B. The satellite will carry 12 Extended C-band transponders and will be positioned at 83º East longitude with a mission life of 7 years. The bus system is based on I-1K platform with ASIC based BMU and 64 Ah Li-ion batteries. The satellite weighs 1375 kg with a payload power of 550W and launch is planned on board PSLV during 2011.
GSAT-9 will carry 6 C band and 24 Ku band transponders with India coverage beam. The satellite is planned to be launched during 2011-12 with a mission life of 12 years and positioned at 48º East longitude. This I-2K satellite has a liftoff mass of 2330 kg and payload power of 2300 W.
GSAT-I0 will carry 12 Normal C-band, 12 Extended C-band and 12 Ku band transponders. It will also carry GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload. The satellite is planned to be launched during 2011 with a mission life of 15 years and positioned at 83º East longitude. This I-3K satellite with liftoff mass of 3435 kg and payload power of 4500 W will be launched on board ARIANE-5

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