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Friday, 4 November 2011

Eight National Missions Launched as part of NAPCC

Eight National Missions Launched as part of NAPCC: Solar Energy, Enhanced Energy Efficiency, Sustainable Habitat, Water, Sustaining the Himalayan Eco-system, Green India, Sustainable Agriculture and Strategic knowledge for Climate Change which include assessment of the impact of climate change and actions needed to address climate change are the concerned fields in which National missions have been launched under National Action Plan on Climate Change.

1. National Solar Mission: The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission, also known as simply National Solar Mission, is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India's energy security challenge. It will also constitute a major contribution by India to the global effort to meet the challenges of climate change.

             The Mission will adopt a 3-phase approach, spanning the remaining period of the 11th Plan and first year of the 12th Plan (up to 2012-13) as Phase 1, the remaining 4 years of the 12th Plan (2013-17) as Phase 2 and the 13th Plan (2017-22) as Phase 3. At the end of each plan, and mid-term during the 12th and 13th Plans, there will be an evaluation of progress, review of capacity and targets for subsequent phases, based on emerging cost and technology trends, both domestic and global. The aim would be to protect Government from subsidy exposure in case expected cost reduction does not materialize or is more rapid than expected.

           The objective of the National Solar Mission is to establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible. The immediate aim of the Mission is to focus on setting up an enabling environment for solar technology penetration in the country both at a centralized and decentralized level. The first phase (up to 2013) will focus on capturing of the low hanging options in solar thermal; on promoting off-grid systems to serve populations without access to commercial energy and modest capacity addition in grid-based systems. In the second phase, after taking into account the experience of the initial years, capacity will be aggressively ramped up to create conditions for up scaled and competitive solar energy penetration in the country.

2. National Mission on Enhanced Energy Efficiency: NMEEE is an Indian government initiative proposed to address national problems of inefficient energy use. It is one of eight proposals created by India's National Action Plan for Climate Change and is based on the Energy Conservation Act of 2001.

            The initiative outlines several actions needed, which include:
            (i). perform, achieve and trade.
            (ii). market transformation for energy efficiency.
            (iii). financing of energy efficiency.
            (iv). power sector technology strategy.
            (v). strengthening of state designated agencies.
            (vi). strengthening of Bureau of Energy Efficiency.
            (vii). awareness programmes.

3. National Mission on Sustainable Habitat: The national mission on sustainable habitat is one of the eight missions under national climate change action plan and aims to make cities sustainable through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, management of solid waste & shift to public transport. The National Mission for Sustainable Habitat which is a component of the National Action Plan for Climate Change will broadly cover the following aspects: Extension of the energy conservation building code - which addresses the design of new and large commercial buildings to optimize their energy demand; Better urban planning and modal shift to public transport - make long term transport plans to facilitate the growth of medium and small cities in such a way that ensures efficient and convenient public transport; Recycling of material and urban waste management - special areas of focus will be development of technology for producing power from waste.
            The National Mission will include a major R&D programme, focusing on bio-chemical conversion, waste water use, sewage utilization and recycling options wherever possible.

4. National Water Mission: The Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change approved the National Water Mission focusing on making water conservation a peoples' movement in the country.

The main objective of the National Water Mission is "conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its more equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management".

            The five identified goals of the Mission are:
            (a) comprehensive water data base in public domain and assessment of impact of climate change on water resource;
            (b) promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation and preservation;
            (c) focused attention to over-exploited areas;
            (d) increasing water use efficiency by 20%, and
            (e) promotion of basin level integrated water resources management.

5. National Mission on Sustaining the Himalayan Eco-system: National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Eco-System cleared by PM's Council on Climate Change is the fourth mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change focuses on evolving suitable management and policy measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan glacier and mountain eco-system.

This mission aims to understand the complex processes affecting the Himalayan Eco system and evolve suitable management and policy measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan glacier and mountain eco-system.

            The mission attempts to address some important issues concerning :
            a) Himalayan Glaciers and the associated hydrological consequences,
            b) Biodiversity conservation and protection,
            c) Wild life conservation and protection,
            d) Traditional knowledge societies and their livelihood and
            e) Planning for sustaining of the Himalayan Ecosystem.

6. National Mission for Green India: The mission, which is one of the eight under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, aims at increasing green house gas removal by India's forests to 6.35 per cent of the country's total emissions by 2020.

The National Mission for a Green India, as one of the eight Missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), recognizes that climate change phenomena will seriously affect and alter the distribution, type and quality of natural biological resources of the country and the associated livelihoods of the people. Mission for a Green India (henceforth referred to as Mission) acknowledges the influences that the forestry sector has on environmental amelioration though climate mitigation, food security, water security, biodiversity conservation and livelihood security of forest dependent communities.

            GIM puts "greening" in the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Greening is meant to enhance ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration and storage (in forests and other ecosystems), hydrological services and biodiversity; as well as other provisioning services such as fuel, fodder, small timber and non-timber forest products (NTFPs).

            The Mission aims at responding to climate change by a combination of adaptation and mitigation measures, which would help: enhancing carbon sinks in sustainably managed forests and other ecosystems; adaptation of vulnerable species/ecosystems to the changing climate; and adaptation of forest-dependent communities.

The objectives of the Mission are:
            a) Increased forest/tree cover on 5 m ha of forest/non-forest lands and improved quality of forest cover on another 5 m ha (a total of 10 m ha).
            b) Improved ecosystem services including biodiversity, hydrological services and carbon sequestration as a result of treatment of 10 m ha.
            c) Increased forest-based livelihood income of about 3 million households living in and around the forests.
            d) Enhanced annual CO2 sequestration by 50 to 60 million tonnes in the year 2020.

7. National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture: The plan aims to support climate adaptation in agriculture through the development of climate-resilient crops, expansion of weather insurance mechanisms, and agricultural practices.

            NAPCC has identified the following focus areas :
            (i). Dry land Agriculture
            (ii). Risk Management
            (iii). Access to Information
            (iv). Use of Bio- technology

In addition, DAC (Department of Agriculture and Cooperation) & DARE (Department of Agricultural Research And Education), are also mandated for the Promoting Data Access covering
            (i). Soil Profile
            (ii). Area under Cultivation
            (iii). Production and Yield and
            (iv). Cost of Cultivation

8. National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change: To gain a better understanding of climate science, impacts and challenges, the plan envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modelling, and increased international collaboration.

It also encourages private sector initiatives to develop adaptation and mitigation technologies through venture capital funds.

Inclusion of Vembanad lake into National Wetland Conservation: Vembanad lake has been included in the National Wetland Conservation Programme (NWCP) by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests. The Centre will provide 100 per cent financial assistance to undertake various conservation activities for which the State Government has to submit a long-term Management Action Plan (MAP).

            The shrinkage of Vembanad Lake to 37 per cent (13,224 ha) of its original area of 36,329 ha as a result of land reclamation, has been the most important environmental consequence of various human interventions. The water carrying capacity of the system has been reduced to an abysmal 0.6 cubic kilometer from 2.4 cubic kilometer.

           Vembanad Lake, along with the adjacent wetland over the eastern and southern sides, forms Kuttanadu, the rice bowl of Kerala and the largest wetland system in the western coast. Five rivers originating in the Western Ghats drain into this lake. Every year, tonnes of insecticides, weedicides, fungicides and chemical fertilizers reach this wetland.

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